Fasoracetam (NS-105/LAM-105) is a relatively new Piracetam-like nootropic, which, as the name suggests, belongs to the racetam family of nootropics. Fasoracetam is a very potent racetam with a great potential as a cognitive enhancer. It has a chemical structure of (5R)-5-(piperidine-1-carbonyl) pyrrolidin-2-one and was originally developed by a company called Nippon Shinyaku in search for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
Fasoracetam affects three kinds of receptors in the brain: the cholinergic, GABA and glutamate. As a result it has nootropic, anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. For example, Fasoracetam targets and modulates glutamate receptors that are implicated in a range of cognitive functions, such as memory and learning. In addition, Fasoracetam upregulates GABAB receptors that play a very important role in many physiological and psychological processes. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, thus dysfunctions of the GABA system are associated with anxiety and depression disorders.
Fasoracetam benefits as a nootropic:
Fasoracetam is mainly used by advanced nootropic enthusiasts who seek to gain stronger effects compared to other racetams (e.g., Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Nefiracetam). The concentration level of Fasoracetam is thought to be very similar to Noopept, which is about 1000 times stronger than Piracetam (the original racetam).
Its potency and different benefits mean that the users experience improvements in general intelligence while also reducing anxiety symptoms. Such changes can be very beneficial in anyone’s working life. There is also some evidence suggesting that Fasoracetam may be an effective treatment for the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Mechanisms of action:
Animal models show that Fasoracetam appears to be able to increase the number of GABA(B) receptors in the cerebral cortex. However, it does not seem to affect the binding properties of adrenoreceptors and 5-HT2 receptors. Basically, this may prove that the brain does not develop tolerance to Fasoracetam, and the effectiveness remains the same every time it is administered.
It is a remarkable fact, which may make Fasoracetam an ideal antidepressant nootropic in the near future. However, more studies and research are still needed to prove Fasoracetam effectiveness in humans.
Additionally, unlike some widely used antidepressant agents, Fasoracetam was not found to affect monoamine neurotransmitter uptake. Again, this means that the likelihood of addiction is very low. Similarly to Coluracetam, Fasoracetam has been shown to boost the acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus through the HACU (high affinity choline uptake) system.
“When the levels of this neurotransmitter are increased, the individual experiences memory and learning improvements.”
Also, preliminary results demonstrate Fasoracetam’s ability to restore memory after memory damage.
Dosage of Fasoracetam:
Subjects in human trials have been given up to 100 mg a day and did not appear to develop any negative side effects. The antidepressant effects of Fasoracetam are evident when higher dosages are taken within this range. However, due to lack of human studies to date, the exact recommended dosage has not been established yet. The half-life of Fasoracetam is between 4-6.5 hours. Its bioavailability has been reported to between 79-97%.
Buying Fasoracetam online:
At the moment Fasoracetam is relatively difficult and costly to obtain. It is possible to buy this compound from a few online suppliers that sell nootropics mainly for research purposes. However, if you are thinking of buying Fasoracetam you should remember that it is not yet approved for human use in the United States. Thus, it is inherently risky to use it at this point.
Is Fasoracetam safe to use?
The major problem with the use of Fasoracetam is a lack of evidence from human studies. Animal studies have not reported any adverse side effects, which may suggest that, generally it is considered to be safe. Since it belongs to the racetam family of nootropics, the users may experience headaches. However, this is a common side effect of all racetam nootropics, which can be easily prevented by adding a good source of choline (e.g., Alpha-GPC) to the stack.
Furthermore, Fasoracetam was not reported to cause any tolerance. Regular use does not appear to weaken its effects either. In fact, the effects seem to remain pretty constant or even get stronger with continuous use. The safety record of Fasoracetam, particularly in animals, is fairly well established. However, it is yet to be seen if it is well tolerated over a longer period of time.
Comparisons to Coluracetam:
The early reports of the effects of Fasoracetam suggest some similarities to Coluracetam. Coluracetam has received a lot of interest due to its effect on the high affinity choline uptake (HACU) system. Briefly, it speeds up the production of acetylcholine even after a single dose thereby diminishing learning deficits.
More remarkably, these improvements do not cease immediately, which is believed to occur because of the fairly long lasting changes to the HACU. However, Coluracetam is not the only substance that affects the HACU system. For example, rats given Fasoracetam showed an increase of ACh release from the cerebral cortex and the enhancement of HACU both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.
In addition, Fasoracetam eased the artificially-induced memory impairments in rats, while other compounds failed to do so. This is another way of suggesting it has a significant effect on cholinergic and GABA systems. Both of them are responsible for retaining new information in their own different and complicated ways.
What do users say about Fasoracetam?
Nootropic users on Longecity online forums claim to have more motivation, better mental clarity and less anxiety following the use of Fasoracetam. These reviews seem to match well with the results of animal studies. Compared to the more established racetam nootropics, there is still very little information about Fasoracetam and its effects.
However, the existing data suggests that Fasoracetam is effective at improving memory, learning, stopping procrastination as well as easing the symptoms of depression and anxiety. Therefore, with more human studies this substance is very likely to become one of the most demanded nootropics.