Micheal Cavalier

Micheal Cavalier
I started teaching at a young age and have always had a keen interest in helping others. I have been working with college students for a number of years now. I continuously search for innovative teaching techniques to help students improve and develop their studying skills and reach goals and since my discovery of nootropics this seemed like the perfect match. I want to share the latest key information and studies on the function of nootropics, which is a very promising area that has made important contributions to understanding how the brain works and has opened up a new era of research.

Uridine Dosage, Usage, Benefits & Reviews

Uridine is a natural supplement with many brain health and cognition enhancing properties. This post will provide the reader with a better understanding of how uridine works, its usage, dosage and side effects.

What is Uridine?

Uridine is a pyrimidine nucleoside, which is naturally produced by the liver and kidneys. It is also found in breast milk and is so important to brain development that is included in most infant formulas.4 This can be explained by the fact that uridine has a number of crucial biological effects in the body. For example, it is involved in the regulation of the cardio-circulatory system, building RNA molecules, making proteins, and modulation of peripheral and central nervous system.1

In terms of uridine nootropic effects, its supplementation can boost the body’s levels of RNA, which subsequently leads to improved memory, concentration and overall cognitive performance. A daily consumption of a nutritional drink called “Souvenaid” containing many nutrients, including uridine monophosphate (625 mg) has been shown to maintain healthy cell membranes and connections between cells thereby protecting memory in patients with early stage Alzheimer’s.3

“Souvenaid” was developed to support the formation and function of neuronal membranes. The formation of new connections is absolutely vital for a healthy and effective brain function.

“Uridine is a natural substance that effectively promotes healthy brain functions.”

This has numerous practical implications for the healthy individuals, but also people with Alzheimer’s disease who have been shown to have lower plasma uridine levels compared to controls.5″

Therefore, oral supplementation of uridine monophosphate, which is a source of circulating and brain uridine, can improve memory, concentration and mental performance. In contrast, low levels of uridine in the brain may result in weaker memory formation, lower concentration and reduced brain plasticity.

In addition to the cognitive enhancement, uridine may be a very effective compound to treat mental disorders as demonstrated in a 6-week intervention administering 1000 mg of uridine daily to seven depressed adolescents with bipolar disorder.4 The findings of the study showed decreased depressive symptoms and uridine was well tolerated by all study participants.4

How does Uridine work?

Following oral administration Uridine is transported across the cell membranes, including the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The concentration of uridine in plasma and tissues is controlled by cellular transport mechanism and by uridine phosphorylase (UPase).1

Once uridine enters the brain it stimulates the synthesis of CDP-choline, which is a critical substrate for phospholipid synthesis. CDP-choline is the precursor to another vital brain chemical called acetylcholine and increased synthesis of this neurotransmitter is related to notable memory improvements, brain plasticity, focus and information processing abilities. In addition to improving cerebral phospholipid metabolism, uridine is also reported to have beneficial effects on catecholamine synthesis and mitochondrial function.4

Main benefits of Uridine:

Despite its wide range of cognitive benefits uridine is currently not as popular as some other nootropics and brain supplements. It may be because nootropic users are not fully aware of the beneficial effects the uridine supplementation can have on a number of cognitive functions, including memory, concentration, information processing ability and overall cognition.

“Available evidence suggests that optimal brain functioning heavily relies on uridine throughout the human life span.”

Therefore, uridine should be definitely added to the list of very promising and effective nootropics that are going to grow in popularity among nootropic users.

Recommended dosage of Uridine:

Generally, the recommended daily dosage ranges between 0.5 to 2 grams. 1 gram is enough to begin with and you should experience the aforementioned brain-boosting effects following this dosage. Plasma uridine levels rise within hours of administration.5

Although, it is perfectly fine to take uridine supplementation on its own, stacking it with other nootropics and/or dietary supplements may lead to even better results. For example, uridine is reported to be synergistic with fish oil.2 Uridine also goes well with a good source of choline, such as Alpha GPC and by using them in a stack you are likely to experience the additive effects.

Side effects of Uridine:

As a natural substance, uridine is considered to be safe and well-tolerated when taken orally.4 However, you should still follow the recommended daily dosage. Some of the reported side effects often associated with very high dosages are fatigue, headaches, nervousness or some gastrointestinal discomfort.


Based on current evidence uridine is probably one of the most promising nootropics for enhancing healthy brain structure and improving cognitive functions.


  1. Pizzorno, G. et al. 2002. Homeostatic control of uridine and the role of uridine phosphorylase: a biological and clinical update, Biochim Biophys Acta. 1587 (2-3), 133-44.
  1. Uridine
  1. Nutrient drink helps protect memory in early Alzheimer’s patients
  1. Kondo, D.G. et al. 2011. Open-label uridine for treatment of depressed adolescents with bipolar disorder, J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 21 (2), 171-175. 
  1. Rijpma, A. et al. 2015. Effects of Souvenaid on plasma micronutrient levels and fatty acid profiles in mild and mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease, Alzheimers Res Ther. 7 (1), 51.


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Unifiram dosage, unifiram usage, unifiram renefits &  unifiram reviews

The purpose of this brief article is to review the current information on one of the newer nootropics – unifiram. We will discuss how this novel nootropic works, its usage, dosage and potential benefits.

What is Unifiram?

Unifiram (aka DM-232) is a relatively new nootropic, which is structurally related to piracetam.1 Due to its better pharmacological profile, unifiram has a much higher nootropic potency than piracetam. Together with another novel nootropic compound – sunifiram, unifiram may be the most potent nootropics yet. In fact, some researchers believe that unifiram is at least 1000 times stronger than other common nootropics, such as oxiracetam, nefiracetam and aniracetam.1

How does Unifiram work?

A pharmacological profile of unifiram is similar to other nootropics, particularly piracetam. Evidence from animal studies shows that unifiram modulates the cholinergic system, specifically cholinergic transmission in the cerebral cortex.2 As a result there is an increase in the release of acetylcholine (ACh) neurotransmitter, which is very important for optimal functioning of cognitive processes. In contrast, a cholinergic system blockade leads to a serious disruption of memory functions.1 Unifiram has also been shown to increase synaptic transmission in the brain, which means a higher rate of processing and learning of information.2 However, human studies are required to confirm these mechanisms of action.

What are the benefits of Unifiram?

“Unifiram has the cognition-enhancing and anti-amnesic properties.”

Some of the reported benefits include enhanced memory, clearer and faster thinking, increase learning ability, better processing of sensory information and improved social learning. Unifiram may also reduce sleeping time, thereby increase waking hours.1

Recommended dosage of Unifiram:

The recommended daily dosage varies from person to person, but most users report taking up to 5 mg per day.

Side effects of Unifiram:

Based on a limited number of studies, unifiram is believed to be a non-toxic compound with no reports of adverse side effects.1-3 The same can be said about any other piracetam-like nootropic.

Buying Unifiram online:

Unifiram is currently not as popular as other racetam nootropics, therefore there are not many online shop selling it yet. Often advanced nootropics users buy sunifiram as a cheaper, but equally effective alternative to unifiram.

Main facts about Unifiram:

  • Unifiram is a highly potent nootropic agent.
  • As a piracetam-like compound improves memory processes, has no side effects and is non-toxic.
  • Unifiram is a promising compound in the treatment of human cognitive deficits.
  • Often reported daily dosage of unifiram is 5 mg.
  • As availability of unifiram is still limited many users buy sunifiram as its alternative.


  1. Ghelardini, C. et al. 2002. The novel nootropic compound DM232 (Unifiram) ameliorates memory impairment in mice and rats, Drug Development Research. 56, 23-32.
  1. Romanelli, M.N. et al. 2006. Pharmacological characterization of DM232 (Unifiram) and DM235 (Sunifiram), new potent cognition enhancers, CNS Drug Rev. 12 (1), 39-52.
  1. Scapecchi, S. et al. 2004. Structure-activity relationship studies on unifiram (DM232) and sunifiram (DM235), two novel and potent cognition enhancing drugs, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 12, 71-85.

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L-Tyrosine & 5-HTP Dosage, Usage, Benefits & Reviews

In this article you will find out about dosage, usage, benefits and reviews of L-Tyrosine and 5-HTP nootropics.

L-Tyrosine and its effects:

L-Tyrosine or simply tyrosine is a nonessential amino acid synthesized from another amino acid called L-phenylalanine. Tyrosine is naturally found in protein-containing foods like fish, eggs, milk, cheese, chicken, and soy products. Although rare, a genetic disorder called phenylketonuria (PKU) inhibits body’s production of tyrosine.5 This requires tyrosine supplementation because if left untreated, it may cause some serious physiological, neurological and intellectual consequences.

The effects of tyrosine, including cognitive enhancement are well-researched. Energy boost, enhanced motivation, better memory formation and recall as well as contribution to the so called fluid intelligence are the key cognitive effects of L-Tyrosine.

Tyrosine is the precursor of dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitters.1 These neurotransmitters facilitate nerve cells communication and influence mood.

“As tyrosine enhances and regulates brain dopamine levels, it modulates cognitive functions.”

This explains why tyrosine supplementation has been widely studied in the treatment of various dopaminergic-related pathologies, such as Parkinson’s disease, depression and attention deficit disorder.1

As a nootropic, tyrosine has been demonstrated to promote cognitive flexibility by repleting cognitive resources in healthy adults.2 This suggests that cognitive flexibility processes are sensitive to dopamine neuromodulation.

Interestingly, most scientific studies analysing the ability of tyrosine to alleviate the effects of stress originate from research units attached to US military.3 For example, it has been demonstrated that tyrosine supplementation reduces the effects of stress and fatigue on cognitive task performance in a group of 10 cadets undergoing a combat training course.4

Extreme levels of stress are known to deplete the brain’s dopaminergic resources. As a good dopamine regulator, L-Tyrosine makes it easier to deal with acute stressors and/or cognitively demanding tasks. Therefore, this nootropic may be particularly effective at preventing from acute stressors.

The daily recommended dosage of L-Tyrosine is between 500-2000 mg. It is recommended to take tyrosine on empty stomach.

5-HTP and its effects:

5-HTP (5-Hydroxytryptophan) is a chemical made from an essential amino acid called L-tryptophan and the precursor to serotonin (5-HT).6 Serotonin is the main regulator of mood and behaviour. Therefore, 5-HTP supplementation is known as the most effective way to restore the levels of the “happiness neurotransmitter” in the brain. As a supplement, 5-HTP is typically derived from the seeds of the African plant called Griffonia simplicifolia.8

Additionally, 5-HTP is very effective at increasing the levels of serotonin as it easily crosses the blood-brain barrier. Following an oral dose around 70% of it ends up in the bloodstream.8

“It effects are described as ‘euphoric’ and without providing any stimulatory effects.7″

5-HTP may be effective at treating different conditions, including depression, anxiety, fibromyalgia, insomnia, migraine and even obesity.8 For anxiety or depression, the recommended daily dosage is between 150 and 300 mg. 5-HTP should be taken with a meal.

Using L-Tyrosine and 5-HTP in a stack:

The combination of L-Tyrosine and 5-HTP is a great natural way to alleviate the symptoms of depression and anxiety. Supplementing yourself with L-Tyrosine and 5-HTP may help you restore the natural balance of important neurotransmitters while also taking advantage of cognitive function improvements, like increased concentration and memory.

As it is the case with a lot of natural supplements, combining multiple compounds into a “stack” is likely to produce much stronger results than taking them separately. From various reviews, L-Tyrosine and 5-HTP appear be synergistic, amplifying the effects of each individual supplements.

5-HTP seems to magnify Tyrosine’s effect on mood improvement, as dopamine and serotonin levels go up. The users of such stack typically report general positive changes to focus, stress management abilities and concentration.

In fact, it turns out to be an excellent way to combat social anxiety disorder (SAD). This combination makes it much easier to speak to other people, even in front of large groups. L-Tyrosine and 5-HTP are also great nootropics at helping individuals with different symptoms of depression. Furthermore, those who suffer from ADHD also receive a very much welcome effect of calmness and focus.

Therefore, taking L-Tyrosine and 5-HTP supplements while maintaining a healthy diet can produce a very safe and profound effect for our physical and emotional well-being that may prove to be absolutely worth it.

Is it safe to use L-Tyrosine and 5-HTP in a stack?

Most people tolerate these natural supplements very well. Thus, generally there are very few reported side effects of L-Tyrosine and 5-HTP. However, you should bear in mind that all supplements, including L-Tyrosine that boost dopamine and norepinephrine levels may potentially result in a risk of side effects linked to high metabolism. Fast heart rate, digestion problems and migraine headaches are sometimes reported following the use of such supplements. Therefore, you should not exceed the recommended dosages. Plus, 5-HTP is a great supplement to use to mitigate such side effects.


  1. Jongkees, B.J. et al. 2015. Effect of tyrosine supplementation on clinical and healthy populations under stress or cognitive demands – a review, J Psychiatr Res. 70, 50-7.
  1. Steenbergen, L. et al. 2015. Tyrosine promotes cognitive flexibility: evidence from proactive vs. reactive control during task switching performance, Neuropsychologia. 69, 50-5.
  1. Young, S.N. 2007. L-Tyrosine to alleviate the effects of stress?, J Psychiatry Neurosci. 32 (3), 224.
  1. Deijen, J.B. et al. 1999. Tyrosine improves cognitive performance and reduces blood pressure in cadets after one week of a combat training course, Brain Res Bull. 48 (2), 203-9.
  1. Brown, C.S. & Lichter-Konecki, U. 2015. Phenylketonuria (PKU): a problem solved?, Mol Genet Metab Re. 6, 8-12.
  1. http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/5hydroxytryptophan-5htp
  1. https://examine.com/supplements/5-htp/
  1. Birsdall, T.C. 1998. 5-Hydroxytryptophan: a clinically-effective serotonin precursor, Altern Med Rev. 3 (4), 271-80.

iQtonic best nootropic drink supplement

Smart energy drink developed by Cambridge scientists to allow you to double your productivity and get the most out of your brain without caffeine crash.


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Regularly readers and nootropics users will be familiar with the most common nootropic categories, such as racetams, cholinergics, anxiolytics, neurodilators, neuronutrients, serotonergics and eugeroics. All nootropics (even from the same category) differ in terms of their benefits, mechanisms of action and effectiveness. However, the general idea behind the use of nootropics is pretty simple – help busy, hard-working, extremely driven people achieve their goals by making them more productive.

Increasing pace of life, growing pressures to perform well under tight deadlines, rising levels of stress mean that people require different nootropics to cope with the daily tasks. A strong willpower and self-control may no longer be enough to sustain your competitive advantage.

Therefore, productivity enhancers, cognitive boosters, brain stimulants, healthy brain supporters, mood regulators, anxiety and depression fighters have been developed and popularized over recent years. There are a lot of reports of high-earners, students, office workers plus many others using nootropics to help them optimize their cognitive functions.

Nootropics mainly come in three different forms bulk powder, tablets or capsules. Bulk powder is generally cheaper to buy but less convenient to use compared to nootropic tablets and capsules. Some companies offer specially designed “stacks” that combine a number of different nootropics into one which makes it even more convenient for people to use them. This way they do not have to worry about taking individual nootropics themselves.

For example, a new nootropic category called “productivity and learning accelerators” has been recently introduced to the nootropic market. iQuzil™ is a powerful stack for the experienced nootropic users looking to improve their daily productivity.

Functional nootropic beverages:

Another recent category of nootropics is “nootropic drinks” or “nootropic smart drinks”. Some beverage developers actually predicted that nootropic drinks will become as popular as energy drinks and is the future of functional drinks. In fact, this category of nootropics is also called “functional nootropic beverages”. And the reason it is called “functional nootropic beverages” is to do with nootropics potentially positive effect on health and brain function.

iQtonic™ falls into this category and is the first nootropic smart drink designed by iQtropics company. iQtonic™ or simply “Think in a Drink” is a nootropic drink developed by mixing effective nootropics and vitamins. Essentially, iQtonic™ is a great tasting nootropic stack in a liquid form that should be served chilled. It is a super convenient and also very tasty way of making sure that you take your daily nootropics even during the busiest times.

“iQtonic™ is designed to double your productivity, enhance cognitive functions, improve mood, motivation and concentration.”

Key benefits:

  • Improves focus, mental clarity and productivity
  • Enhances cognition, memory and thinking
  • Better mood and higher motivation
  • Reduces fatigue, brain fog, stress and anxiety

Scientific research behind iQtonic:

The nootropic ingredients used in iQtonic™ smart drink are: CDP Choline (Citicoline), L-Theanine, Guarana, Huperzine A, DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol), Taurine, Theacrine and Vitamin B Complex (B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 & B12) and NALT (N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine). Below is a brief description of each ingredient based on scientific evidence, which explains why iQtonic™ is the best nootropic drink on the market.

DMAE is a compound for healhy mind and a precursor to acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine itself is very important for many cognitive functions, including learning, rational thinking and ability to process information. In addition, research suggest that DMAE can induce a psychophysiological state of better feeling of well-being.1

Citicoline is an excellent source of choline. Citicoline is well-known for its neuroprotective effects and neuroregenerative potential.2

N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (NALT) is a more soluble form of tyrosine (a non-essential amino acid) which is effectively absorbed into the bloodstream.3 As a precursor to many chemical messengers it is very important for executive function.4

Huperzine A is a cholinergic nootropic with the primary role of inhibiting an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine.5 Therefore, it helps to maintain high levels of acetylcholine.

Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the central nervous system with no toxic effect on humans.6 There are many important taurine-dependent processes, such as neuronal proliferation.6

L-Theanine is a naturally occurring non-dietary amino acid that plays a number of important roles in the body. For example, evidence suggests that L-theanine has anxiolytic effects (i.e., anxiety reduction) but also positively alters physiological signs reported under stress.7

Guarana is a herbal extract from the Amazonian plant Paullina cupana, which stimulates the central nervous system (CNS) thereby reducing the effects of physical and psychological stress.8 It also improves attention, increases alertness, enhances memory and perception.

Theacrine is a pure alkaloid structurally similar to caffeine.9 However, its benefits, including improved energy levels, higher mental focus, stronger motivation and improved mood state, last longer compared to caffeine, plus its use does not lead to tolerance development.

Finally, the B vitamins all have important functions in the body.

iQtonic vs. energy drinks:

So, the fundamental question is “what is the biggest advantage that iQtonic™ has over regular energy drinks?”.

Firstly, iQtonic™ does not contain sugar. No sugar equals no unnecessary calories in your daily calorie intake. There is enough evidence linking excessive intake of sugar with the epidemic of obesity. Secondly, it is caffeine-free. This is great news for someone who does not like caffeine and is looking for an effective alternative to caffeinated drinks. In addition, iQtonic™ boosts energy without having to experience caffeine “crashes”. It is also aspartame-free. Finally, compared to most energy drinks it contains a lot of functional nootropics that provide nourishment for the brain.

In summary, iQtonic™ is the nootropic drink for anyone who is always on the go. It will be interesting to see if nootropic drinks, such as iQtonic™ become the next big thing as they are likely to become just as popular as caffeinated drinks.


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  1. Dimpfel, W. et al. 2003. Efficacy of dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE) containing vitamin-mineral drug combination on EEG patterns in the presence of different emotional states, Eur J Med Res. 8 (5), 183–191.
  2. Alvarez-Sabín, J. & Román, G.C. 2013. The role of citicoline in neuroprotection and neurorepair in ischemic stroke, Brain Sci. 3 (3), 1395-414.
  3. Hoffer, L.J. et al. 2003. N-acetyl-L-tyrosine as a tyrosine source in adult parenteral nutrition, JPEN. 27 (6), 419-22.
  4. Hosenbocus, S. & Chahal, R. 2012. A review of executive function deficits and pharmacological management in children and adolescents, J Can Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 21 (3), 223 – 9.
  5. Xu, Z.Q., et al. 2012. Treatment with Huperzine A improves cognition in vascular dementia patients, Cell Biochem Biophys. 62 (1), 55-8.
  6. Li, X.W. et al 2016. The role of taurine in improving neural stem cells proliferation and differentiation, Nutr Neurosci. [Epub ahead of print].
  7. Kimura, K. et al. (2007). L-theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses, Biol Psychol. 74 (1), 39-45.
  8. Smith, N. & Atroch, A.L. 2010. Guarana’s journey from regional tonic to aphrodisiac and global energy drink, Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 7 (3), 279-282.
  9. Kuhma, D.J. et al. 2015. Cognitive performance and mood following ingestion of a theacrine-containing dietary supplement, caffeine, or placebo by young men and women, Nutrients, 7 (11), 9618-9632.

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Fasoracetam dosage, usage, benefits & reviewsFasoracetam (NS-105/LAM-105) is a relatively new Piracetam-like nootropic, which, as the name suggests, belongs to the racetam family of nootropics. Fasoracetam is a very potent racetam with a great potential as a cognitive enhancer. It has a chemical structure of (5R)-5-(piperidine-1-carbonyl) pyrrolidin-2-one and was originally developed by a company called Nippon Shinyaku in search for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

Fasoracetam affects three kinds of receptors in the brain: the cholinergic, GABA and glutamate. As a result it has nootropic, anxiolytic and antidepressant properties. For example, Fasoracetam targets and modulates glutamate receptors that are implicated in a range of cognitive functions, such as memory and learning. In addition, Fasoracetam upregulates GABAB receptors that play a very important role in many physiological and psychological processes. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, thus dysfunctions of the GABA system are associated with anxiety and depression disorders.

Fasoracetam benefits as a nootropic:

Fasoracetam is mainly used by advanced nootropic enthusiasts who seek to gain stronger effects compared to other racetams (e.g., Aniracetam, Oxiracetam, Nefiracetam). The concentration level of Fasoracetam is thought to be very similar to Noopept, which is about 1000 times stronger than Piracetam (the original racetam).

Its potency and different benefits mean that the users experience improvements in general intelligence while also reducing anxiety symptoms. Such changes can be very beneficial in anyone’s working life. There is also some evidence suggesting that Fasoracetam may be an effective treatment for the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).


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Mechanisms of action:

Animal models show that Fasoracetam appears to be able to increase the number of GABA(B) receptors in the cerebral cortex. However, it does not seem to affect the binding properties of adrenoreceptors and 5-HT2 receptors. Basically, this may prove that the brain does not develop tolerance to Fasoracetam, and the effectiveness remains the same every time it is administered.

It is a remarkable fact, which may make Fasoracetam an ideal antidepressant nootropic in the near future. However, more studies and research are still needed to prove Fasoracetam effectiveness in humans.

Additionally, unlike some widely used antidepressant agents, Fasoracetam was not found to affect monoamine neurotransmitter uptake. Again, this means that the likelihood of addiction is very low. Similarly to Coluracetam, Fasoracetam has been shown to boost the acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus through the HACU (high affinity choline uptake) system.

“When the levels of this neurotransmitter are increased, the individual experiences memory and learning improvements.”

Also, preliminary results demonstrate Fasoracetam’s ability to restore memory after memory damage.

Dosage of Fasoracetam:

Subjects in human trials have been given up to 100 mg a day and did not appear to develop any negative side effects. The antidepressant effects of Fasoracetam are evident when higher dosages are taken within this range. However, due to lack of human studies to date, the exact recommended dosage has not been established yet. The half-life of Fasoracetam is between 4-6.5 hours. Its bioavailability has been reported to between 79-97%.

Buying Fasoracetam online:

At the moment Fasoracetam is relatively difficult and costly to obtain. It is possible to buy this compound from a few online suppliers that sell nootropics mainly for research purposes. However, if you are thinking of buying Fasoracetam you should remember that it is not yet approved for human use in the United States. Thus, it is inherently risky to use it at this point.

Is Fasoracetam safe to use?

The major problem with the use of Fasoracetam is a lack of evidence from human studies. Animal studies have not reported any adverse side effects, which may suggest that, generally it is considered to be safe. Since it belongs to the racetam family of nootropics, the users may experience headaches. However, this is a common side effect of all racetam nootropics, which can be easily prevented by adding a good source of choline (e.g., Alpha-GPC) to the stack.

Furthermore, Fasoracetam was not reported to cause any tolerance. Regular use does not appear to weaken its effects either. In fact, the effects seem to remain pretty constant or even get stronger with continuous use. The safety record of Fasoracetam, particularly in animals, is fairly well established. However, it is yet to be seen if it is well tolerated over a longer period of time.

Comparisons to Coluracetam:

The early reports of the effects of Fasoracetam suggest some similarities to Coluracetam. Coluracetam has received a lot of interest due to its effect on the high affinity choline uptake (HACU) system. Briefly, it speeds up the production of acetylcholine even after a single dose thereby diminishing learning deficits.

More remarkably, these improvements do not cease immediately, which is believed to occur because of the fairly long lasting changes to the HACU. However, Coluracetam is not the only substance that affects the HACU system. For example, rats given Fasoracetam showed an increase of ACh release from the cerebral cortex and the enhancement of HACU both in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

In addition, Fasoracetam eased the artificially-induced memory impairments in rats, while other compounds failed to do so. This is another way of suggesting it has a significant effect on cholinergic and GABA systems. Both of them are responsible for retaining new information in their own different and complicated ways.

What do users say about Fasoracetam?

Nootropic users on Longecity online forums claim to have more motivation, better mental clarity and less anxiety following the use of Fasoracetam. These reviews seem to match well with the results of animal studies. Compared to the more established racetam nootropics, there is still very little information about Fasoracetam and its effects.

However, the existing data suggests that Fasoracetam is effective at improving memory, learning, stopping procrastination as well as easing the symptoms of depression and anxiety. Therefore, with more human studies this substance is very likely to become one of the most demanded nootropics.

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Tianeptine Dosage, Usage, Benefits & ReviewsTianeptine is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that was originally made and marketed by the French company Servier in the early 1980s. Tianeptine is sold in Asia, Europe and Latin America under the brand names of Stablon, Tianeurax, Coaxil and Tatinol. It is important to mention that in the US Tianeptine is not FDA approved.

What is Tianeptine?

Despite the fact that Tianeptine has a tricyclic structure, its distinctive pharmacological properties make it a selective serotonin reuptake enhancer (SSRE). SSRE is different to most antidepressant agents (i.e., selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI)) as it decreases serotonin levels as opposed to increasing them. Such mechanistic differences have led researchers to revisit the most documented monoamine hypothesis of depression. Briefly, the three best known monoamines are serotonin, dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitters. They are all linked with the regulation of motivation and mood.

The monoamine hypothesis suggests that depression symptoms result from reduced levels of these neurotransmitters. For example, deficiencies in serotonin are often associated with depression and anxiety disorders. Therefore, those kinds of disorders can be improved by reversing monoamine deficits. This explains why they are treated with traditional antidepressant medications that restore the neurotransmitter imbalances in the brain.

In contrast, Tianeptine appears to work by altering the levels of serotonin in a completely different way.

“Most importantly, compared to the SSRIs Tianeptine has a better side effect profile.”

This may provide a new safer and improved pharmacological treatment to the standard approaches in the treatment of depression as it is a better tolerated compound than more common antidepressants.

Tianeptine’s clinical efficacy has been successfully shown in the treatment of depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive type behaviours stress-related disorders and autistic symptoms. As an atypical nootropic, Tianeptine may improve the user’s cognitive function. Specifically, following the use of Tianeptine improvements in thought clarity, memory, abstract relationships comprehension and learning abilities have been reported. Some other reported benefits include better sleep quality, mood regulation and ability to relax. Furthermore, Tianeptine has been shown to have neuroprotective properties as it prevents pathological changes and glutamate toxicity in the amygdala and hippocampus areas of the brain.

How does Tianeptine work?

Although, Tianeptine has been studied for more than three decades its molecular mechanism of action remains unknown. However, current evidence suggests that by easily crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) it quickly starts working in the brain. There are several theories that have attempted to explain the mechanisms through which Tianeptine achieves its effects in humans.


Several scientific studies have concluded that Tianeptine provides its antidepressant effects through central neuroplasticity, some cellular and neurochemical mechanisms. Tianeptine reverses the pathological damage in certain areas of the brain that has been induced by stress.

It actually protects the brain during stressful experiences. Situations of high tension cause the hypothalamus to produce corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) or corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH). In turn, it boosts the production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) on the anterior pituitary gland, which promotes glucocorticoid release. Unrestricted psychosocial and physical stress causes increased secretion of cortisol from the adrenal glands. That induces pathological changes on hippocampus and lateral amygdala. Changes like can lead to lower mood and clinical depression.

Tianeptine stops and reverses neural damage. It does that while encouraging synaptic plasticity and neuronal health. Long-term use of this compound may even normalize the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. It lowers the stress and basal induced activity of the HPA system and this way helps the user to deal with stressful experiences. Tianeptine also promotes decrease of corticosterone, ACTH, and CRF, further contributing to its effects.


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Other possible mechanisms:

Prolonged use of Tianeptine reduces programmed cell death, known as apoptosis, in the hippocampus. It seems to significantly affect the action of glutamate, the core excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. By preventing overstimulation of glutamate receptors Tianeptine stops the body’s harmful responses to stress. In addition, higher sensitivity of glutamate receptors is the essential principle behind intellect, memory and concentration improvements in the users. In this specific way, Tianeptine is fairly closely related to other well-known nootropics, like Sunifiram, Aniracetam and Noopept.

One of the latest studies on Tianeptine shows that the substance works as an agonist of delta and mu opioid receptors. The latter help develop euphoria in an individual, which may provide a reasonable explanation as to why Tianeptine is effective when it comes to treating anxiety and improving mood. These results have opened up a whole new field of research on this substance.

More recently, animal model was used to demonstrate its anti-inflammatory properties by suppressing microglial activation.

Cognitive enhancement:

A number of studies support the claim that Tianeptine improves learning abilities and memory by preventing apoptosis and enhancement of behaviour against discriminative tasks. It sharpens spatial memory and preserves the hippocampus from unwanted changes. A study performed on animals found that Tianeptine promotes the long-term memory recall.

Another study on 20 patients with prior diagnosis of depression also produced positive results. The subjects have undergone a three-month Tianeptine treatment and have had cognitive function testing performed on them. It indicated a general improvement in attention, learning processes, immediate memory and reaction time. The results of this study shows that Tianeptine the cognition.

Recommended dosage of Tianeptine:

The typically recommended daily dosage of Tianeptine is 12.5 mg taken once per day. Do not exceed the recommended dosage and any increase in dosage should be done carefully following a consultation with your doctor. Tianeptine has high bioavailability.

Side effects of Tianeptine:

If used within the recommended dosage, Tianeptine is unlikely to induce any psychotomimetic side effects. However, the most reported side effects are drowsiness, dry mouth, dizziness, diarrhea, nausea, headache, constipation, fatigue, joint pain and palpitations. You should not use Tianeptine if you:

  • are pregnant or lactating
  • are allergic to Tianeptine
  • have kidney problems
  • take other similar substances, such as tetracyclic antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and SSRIs.

Tianeptine: The Anxiolytic Nootropic

Tianeptine is an atypical antidepressant agent that has a growing body of evidence to become a popular anxiolytic nootropic. Many researchers predict that Tianeptine will be widely used in the treatment for anxiety-related disorders. Therefore, it can be expected to see Tianeptine among the best nootropics for depression. Further, the users of Tianeptine also report some nootropic and cognitive-enhancing properties, such as improved learning ability and memory.


  1. Cooper, C.M. et al. 2015. Tianeptine in an experimental medicine model of antidepressant action, J Psychopharmacol. 29 (5), 582-90.
  1. Glombik, K. et al. 2016. The effect of chronic tianeptine administration on the brain mitochondria: direct links with an animal model of depression, Mol Neurobiol. 53 (10), 7351-62.
  1. Godsil, B.P. et al. 2015. Acute tianeptine treatment selectively modulates neuronal activation in the central nucleus of the amygdala and attenuates fear extinction, Mol Psychiatry. 20 (11), 1420-7.
  1. Frančišković, T. et al. 2011. Tianeptine in the combined treatment of combat related posttraumatic stress disorder, Psychiatr Danub. 23 (3), 257-263.
  1. Gassaway, M.M. 2014. The atypical antidepressant and neurorestorative agent tianeptine is a μ-opioid receptor agonist, Translational Psychiatry. 4, e411.


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    Best nootropic and nootropic stack - iQuzil Review

    What is iQuzil?

    iQuzil is the latest nootropic formula released on the market by ThoughtFoods company. ThoughtFoods is an international nootropics company that was started by Cambridge scientists interested in understanding and maximising cognitive function. The UK, US and EU readers can check their website by clicking one of the respective buttons below.

    iQuzil UK iQuzil USA iQuzil EU

    It is probably worth starting this review by understanding the name of the product. Granted, iQuzil is a slightly unusual name but it makes much more sense if we break it down. It is made up of two separate parts – intelligence quotient (IQ) and “zil” derived from the word “zeal”. So put those two together and here we have a nootropic product called iQuzil.

    As its name suggests iQuzil has been carefully formulated to increase the mental energy levels. Some of the reviews suggest that iQuzil is the best nootropic, or to be precise the best nootropics stack, on the market. Furthermore, one of the rewards that ThoughtFoods offers to their loyal customers is “IQ points” that can be later converted into a voucher. Obviously iQuzil is not an exception and customers can collect up to 4 IQ points by purchasing this product. Therefore, iQuzil is a source to increase IQ either cognitively or monetarily.

    “iQuzil is the first ever productivity and learning accelerator.”

    With the release of iQuzil, a new category of nootropics called “learning and productivity accelerator” has been created. This category has been added to the more common ones, including racetams, anxiolytics, cholinergics, eugeroics, serotonergics and neurodilators, and is the best nootropic around.

    iQuzil has been specifically designed with students in mind but is targeted towards anyone who requires high levels of brain power to excel in a competitive work environment. Typically, nootropics work by specifically targeting and improving a single cognitive process, such as memory, learning and concentration. There are not many nootropic products that claim to improve these cognitive processes simultaneously though.

    Although, any improvement in isolation can result in an increased productivity, most daily activities cannot be completed to the highest standard without all cognitive processes working together. To that end, a number of highest quality nootropic ingredients were selected and combined into one effective formula so that they improve various brain functions. Subsequently, learning abilities and productivity are enhanced. This is why its labeled as the best nootropic. Let’s take a look at the main nootropic ingredients of iQuzil.

    Picamilon – a natural nootropic compound that crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) thereby improving a blood flow in cerebral vessels. An increased blood circulation in the brain has been linked with a higher working capacity as well as reduction in emotional stress and anxiety.

    Adrafinil – a synthetic nootropic that is chemically very similar to Modafinil and is used to promote alertness and wakefulness.

    Pramiracetam – a powerful racetam that improves the ability to store and retrieve large amounts of complex information. Pramiracetam is known to work by increasing the uptake of acetylcholine (excitatory neurotransmitter) in the brain.

    Alpha GPC, one of the best nootropic for choline, has been added to this formula to facilitate the effects of Pramiracetam. Alpha GPC is a cholinergic that is closely related to the B-complex vitamins. Choline is a very important micronutrient involved in various functional and structural roles in cells.

    Huperzine A inhibits an enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, which makes it one of the most popular memory enhancing compounds. Like Alpha GPC, Huperzine A belongs to the cholinergic family and has been added to the formula to prevent the further breakdown of acetylcholine.

    N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine (NALT) – an amino acid derived from the non-essential amino acid called L-Tyrosine. Compared to L-Tyrosine, NALT is quicker absorbed in the bloodstream and therefore works more effectively. NALT has been shown to improve memory formation, learning capacity, analytical skills and overall mood by increasing the synthesis of dopamine. As a dopamine precursor NALT increases motivation required to power through long periods of work.

    DMAE has a neuroprotective effect that helps to protect neurons and other cells from harmful effects of oxidative stress. The primary role of DMAE is to maintain a healthy brain.

    Vinpocetine – a natural vasodilator that increases the blood flow and oxygen to the brain. An improved blood circulation in the brain brings important nutrients and energy and removes unwanted toxins.

    Caffeine – a widely used stimulant of the central nervous system (CNS) that needs no further introduction.

    Vincamine – a natural nootropic included in the formula to increase the cerebral blood flow thereby improving the metabolism of essential nutrients and oxygen utilisation in the brain.

    Bioperine – the black pepper extract that has been added to enhance the absorption of other compounds in this formula.

    Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) – the acetylated form of L-Carnitine, which is an amino acid naturally present in the body. L-Carnitine is responsible for a number of different processes, such as energy metabolism and mitochondrial protection. In terms of its nootropics effects, it has been included in the formula as it improves learning ability.

    Other ingredients are: ZMA complex, B group vitamins (B3, B5, B6 and B12), and taurine.

    What do users say about iQuzil?

    In terms of users’ reviews they all can be found on their website as well as below in the comments, but some positive testimonials include:

    “But iQuzil is the best thing I’ve found over here.”

    “The best nootropic I have tried.”

    “I used lots of different nootropics but this one stands out by far. You can actually feel it.”

    “This is the kind of effect I’ve been looking for from nootropics.”

    “I was dubious of taking a pre-made stack but tried the three free capsules and was very impressed! A very subtle yet powerful stack. Definetely the best nootropic I have tried.”

    Read More Reviews

    On the other hand, a high number (16 in total) of ingredients has been identified as one the biggest limitations of iQuzil. This is a valid criticism; however it seems that some reviewers, especially those who have not even tried iQuzil themselves, forget that those ingredients have additive effects. In other words, different effects of the individual ingredients simply summate to produce a powerful biological result.

    It does contain a diverse range of nootropics and that is exactly what makes iQuzil one of the best nootropic stacks currently on the market. It is recommended for expert nootropic users who have experience in using nootropics as its effects may be too strong for inexperienced users.

    It is important to remember that like with any nutritional supplement there may be responders and non-responders to iQuzil. However, scientists at ThoughtFoods have changed and adjusted the formula over a few trials to provide the best possible results for everyone. Changes in formula have been based on the results and feedback from its users. This explains the reviews praising iQuzil as the best nootropic and nootropic stack out there.

    So is iQuzil right for you? You can read as many reviews as you like but the only way to know if iQuzil is the right nootropic formula for you is to try it.

    Where can I buy iQuzil?

    You can order a free sample of 3 capsules x 700 mg on their website. This is the recommended daily dosage that you should take 30 minutes before engaging in a cognitively challenging task. Alternatively, you can purchase a sachet of 18 capsules x 700 mg for £9.60 or $14.95. Finally, you have an option to buy a bottle of 90 capsules x 700 mg for £47.98 or $74.78.

    Send me the Free sample

    3 12386

    Best Nootropics Stack for ADHD & ADDPrescription medications, like Adderall and Ritalin are slowly giving way to nootropics as the preferred treatment for the attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nootropic supplements are safer compounds that are very effective attention span boosters. Additionally, they increase the user’s productivity by providing extra mental energy, improving memory capacity, intensifying concentration and focus.

    Nootropics have very little or non-existent risk and side effects associated with their usage (this is one of the main criteria for a substance to be classified as a “nootropic”). This makes nootropics much safer than prescription medication, such as Adderall. In fact some nootropics are actually used to maintain a good brain health and prevent cognitive decline. So, which nootropic supplements are the most effective for the ADD and ADHD, and how exactly do they work?

    Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD):

    ADD and ADHD are cognitive disorders that frequently occur in both adults and children. Both of these disorders manifest in lack of attention, hyperactivity or impulsiveness that is not usually observed in individuals of the similar stage of mental and physical development.

    The prevalence of ADD and ADHD is rather high among children. According to the statistics, between 3 to 5 percent of the school children are affected by these conditions. Interestingly, boys are up to three times more likely to be affected by these disorders than girls. Often, this requires specialist treatment by a physician or psychiatrist.

    Unfortunately, ADD/ADHD may become quite serious disorders as they do not just disappear with age. Childhood anxiety and learning difficulties tend to continue into adulthood. In many cases this may mean higher chances of accidents, antisocial behaviour, substance abuse and even potential to carry out crimes.

    Although, the currently prescribed medications for the treatment of ADD and ADHD are effective they have a lengthy list of unwanted side effects. For example, a prolonged usage of Adderall and Ritalin results in a negative stimulation that often leaves users “burned out”.

    Nootropic supplements, on the other hand, can be just as helpful in treating these conditions but without adverse side effects.

    “Combining a number of nootropics into a “stack” may boost concentration even more.”

    Nootropics and ADD/ADHD:

    Many nootropic combinations/“stacks” can be helpful in fighting the symptoms of ADD/ADHD. Nootropics usually work by reducing fatigue, boosting mood, motivation and attention span, while also increasing a sense of well-being and enjoyment. Such effects usually provide the energy to carry out the tasks and activities that typically require a lot of mental strain.

    “Nootropics can give you the alertness and focus needed to follow up with tasks without being susceptible to external distractions.”

    As thought processing speed increases, the user is able to remember more new information and recall older memories more efficiently. Benefits like that are extremely useful for someone who is finding it hard to get the work or educational tasks done.

    With regards to the mechanisms of action, Adderall, for example, works by increasing the levels of neurotransmitters that are considered to be stimulants of the central nervous system (CNS). Although, it is an effective prescription stimulant it also has a number of negative side effects.

    Whereas, nootropics work on the neurotransmitters that are not known as stimulants, but can still increase cognition, including motivation, focus and energy. This is the reason why nootropics provide very similar benefits, but without the unwanted side effects. Furthermore, most nootropic supplements do not require a doctor prescription and do not possess the risk of becoming addicted.

    Below are three nootropics stacks and one nootropic formula that are very effective at treating the symptoms of ADHD and ADD.

    The best nootropic formula for ADHD & ADD:

    iQuzil is the first ever learning and productivity accelerator. iQuzil is a nootropic formula that has been carefully designed by combining 16 very effective nootropics. This combination of powerful nootropics has made iQuzil a very popular choice among those users who suffer from the ADHD and ADD. Users report the positive effects of iQuzil as evidenced in the reduced symptoms of ADHD and ADD. They have increased mental energy levels and improved cognition. These effects help them to carry out daily tasks and activities that otherwise require a lot of mental and physical energy.

    Click below for more reviews and prices of iQuzil. ThoughFoods nootropics company sell smaller quantity sachets (i.e. a sachet of 3 capsules x 700 mg and a sachet of 18 capsules x 700 mg) for those willing to try iQuzil before purchasing a bottle of 90 capsules x 700 mg.



    Try the free sample

    • Better overall cognitive performance.
    • Increased alertness, energy and focus
    • Formidable formula for stress and anxiety relief
    • Increased cognitive speed and energy

    Read Reviews

    View Iquzil Prices


    1st nootropic stack for ADHD & ADD:

    The first nootropic stack to try for those affected by ADD/ADHD is well-known by beginner users of nootropics. Nootropics used in this stack are Piracetam combined with Alpha GPC and fish oil.

    Piracetam is the first ever nootropic, which remained very popular among nootropic fans up until now. It works by increasing the levels of the key acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine is responsible for our memory, learning abilities and prolonged attention span. This brain chemical also improves the blood flow and oxygen uptake, which results in more energy.

    Alpha GPC is often thought to be the best way to increase the levels of choline in the body. It is essential for acetylcholine production and is especially needed when taken with a racetam nootropic. Fish oil is a widely recognized brain food which in this stack helps other ingredients to work even more effectively.

    Please note that other racetams, such as Aniracetam, Pramiracetam and Phenylpiracetam are great alternatives to Piracetam. This means that Piracetam can be replaced with any of these racetams in this stack for ADHD & ADD. Obviously, do not forget to adjust the dosages accordingly.


    Aniracetam 500mg x 120 caps bottle

    • Hightened memory and clear thinking
    • Reduced stress and anxiety
    • Enhance focus, mood and perception

    Read Reviews

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    Alpha GPC 400mg x 120 caps bottle

    Alpha GPC
    • Improves effectiveness of nootropics
    • Source of choline for Neurotransmitters
    • Reduces side effects of nootropics

    Read Reviews

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    fish-oil-capsulesFish Oil
    • Cognative Enchancer
    • Optimal brain functioning
    • Improved mood

    Read Reviews

    View Fish Oil Prices




    2nd nootropic stack for ADHD & ADD:

    The second nootropic stack for ADD/ADHD is more potent than the first one. It has Aniracetam as the main ingredient, which is taken together with Alpha GPC, Huperzine A and N-Acetyl L-Tyrosine.

    Aniracetam is an improved and more potent version of Piracetam. It is used to boost attention and focus. If you want to further strengthen the effects, you may want to try other racetams, like Oxiracetam, Pramiracetam or Phenylpiracetam for extreme cognition improvements.

    Huperzine A naturally originates from the Chinese herb. Today, though, it is highly purified in laboratories. It also boosts the levels of acetylcholine, providing even more benefits to memory and attention levels. Several scientific studies have concluded that it efficiently improves memory retention and mental performance in adolescents.

    Tyrosine is useful for the support of the synthesis of neurotransmitters like dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. These neurotransmitters are directly involved in regulating our mood, strengthening motivation, boosting mood and focus.

    Huperzine A 200mcg x 120 tabs bottle

    Huperzine A
    • Improves effectivness of nootropics
    • Increases activity of Acetylcholine
    • Enhanced memory and focus

    Read Reviews

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    Pramiracetam 400mg x 60 caps bottle

    • Heightened memory and clear thinking
    • Reduced stress, anxiety and depression
    • Enhanced memory, focus and perception

    Read Reviews

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    3rd nootropic stack for ADHD & ADD:

    The third nootropic stack has the greatest potency out of three. Therefore, it should only be used for very serious cases of ADD/ADHD. In this stack, a racetam nootropic is replaced by Adrafinil. Adrafinil is known as a very good alternative to Modafinil. Adrafinil is a wakefulness promoting agent that is clinically used to treat different sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy.

    Additional benefit of Adrafinil is its ability to boost the attention span, energy and alertness. All of these benefits are very important to those who have a lot of trouble concentrating due to ADD/ADHD. Adrafinil, however, should not be used on a continuous basis. It is important to cycle it with other compounds, such as Pramiracetam. As with other racetams, Pramiracetam should be stacked with a good source of choline (e.g., Alpha GPC).


    Adrafinil 300mg x 60 caps bottle

    • Increased wakefulness and alertness
    • Reduced fatigue and tiredness
    • Enhanced mental energy and productivity

    Read Reviews

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    Alpha GPC 400mg x 120 caps bottle

    Alpha GPC
    • Improves effectiveness of nootropics
    • Source of choline for Neurotransmitters
    • Reduces side effects of nootropics

    Read Reviews

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    Nootropic stacks can be used to treat and reduce the symptoms of ADD and ADHD. Nootropic supplements may not necessarily cure ADD/ADHD, but they are very likely to help with the underlying chemical imbalances that cause the disorder in the first place.

    Most importantly, nootropics are safe and effective compounds that also provide more general cognitive improvements. By consulting your physician, reading the reviews online and taking your own personal circumstances into account you should be able to decide which nootropic supplement and stack is the best for you.

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    Alzheimer's and nootropicsAlzheimer’s disease:

    Life expectancy in most Western countries is rising, which means that people now live longer than ever before. It is likely that this pattern will slowly continue. This is great news for all of us, but there is the other side of the coin. With longer life expectancy comes aging, which is the biggest risk factor for various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD).

    That is why majority patients with AD are 65 and older. AD accounts for a large proportion (between 60-80%) of dementia cases and over 47.5 million people worldwide suffer from AD or other types of dementia. AD is therefore a major public health affecting patients and their families.

    What causes Alzheimer’s disease?

    AD is a very complex, progressive motor neuron disease which is linked to different causes. Alzheimer’s risk factors are physical inactivity, smoking, diabetes, obesity, hypertension and depression. Its complexity is not fully understood and despite some great recent advancements in medicine, there is still no single cure for this debilitating disease.

    A lot of money is being invested in research of AD so that root causes can be identified thereby helping to find a cure for it. Some great recent studies demonstrate that scientists are constantly searching for medication and treatments against AD.

    For example, one of the latest science discoveries in this field shows that high doses of resveratrol (a naturally occurring compound in various types of food) is an effective cure to prevent further deterioration in patients with AD when compared to placebo. Although, it was the largest and longest clinical trial of resveratrol in humans, more research is needed to determine its effectiveness in treating mild to moderate AD.

    Another recent study from Canada has linked fatty acid deposits in the brain with an increased risk of AD. Researchers discovered that accumulation of fat droplets produced by the brain that occurs with normal aging process may predispose individuals to AD. These studies demonstrate the complex nature of AD and difficulties studying it.

    A number of theories have been proposed to explain the onset of AD. One of the theories suggests that AD is caused by the accumulation of beta-amyloid (a protein fragment) in the brain. Accumulation of beta-amyloid is known as amyloid plague, which subsequently damages neurons and leads to a gradual death of brain cells.

    Damage to neurons, specifically synapses, prevents effective communication and signal transmission between neurons in the brain. Lack of effective communication between nerve cells results in a loss of brain function.

    “Healthy neurons are involved in numerous functions, like storing memories, processing thoughts and emotions, planning and initiating body movements.”

    Therefore, it is crucial to maintain neurons fully functioning and in good health for as long as possible. Otherwise, there may be negative cognitive and behavioural consequences.

    Pharmacological strategies studied in the treatment and management of AD include psychostimulants, neuropeptides, anti-inflammatory agent, cholinergic enhancers and nootropics. Most of these strategies help with the symptoms of AD.

    AD has been associated with the abnormalities of several neurotransmitter systems in the brain. It is well-known that patients with AD have seriously low levels of acetylcholine neurotransmitter. Furthermore, degeneration of the cholinergic system underlies memory loss associated with AD. Therefore, a number of pharmacological treatments have focussed on delaying and minimising cholinergic neurodegeneration in order to maintain cognitive function. This is sometimes called “cholinergic hypothesis” of cognitive dysfunction.

    Best nootropics for Alzheimer’s:

    “Nootropics is a safe class of compounds specifically designed to improve memory and learning capacity.”

    Originally, the term nootropic derived from two Greek words: “noos”, meaning “mind”, and “tropein”, meaning “towards”. Nootropics are also known as “smart pills” and cognitive enhancing agents that are designed to prevent cognitive decline and facilitate cognitive functions. Various nootropics have been studied in the treatment of cognitive diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease.

    For example, Piracetam has been originally developed to treat chronic neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. Similarly, Noopept an neuroprotective dipeptide has been shown to have significant normalising effects in cognitive deficiency in rats. Nootropics exert their effects via different systems in the body and cholinergic system is one of them.

    Cholinergic system and its main neurotransmitter – acetylcholine underpin a number of very important cognitive functions, such as learning, memory, focus, decision making and sensory perception. The human body cannot produce enough acetylcholine without the sufficient levels of choline.

    Although, this nutrient is naturally found in our diet, the consumed levels are very low. This places a lot of people at risk of choline deficiency. Therefore, high quality choline supplements, such as Alpha GPC, CDP-Choline (aka Citicoline), Centrophenoxine and Choline Bitartrate can prevent the choline deficiency.

    For full benefits of acetylcholine precursors, they should be taken in combination with agonists. This induces a synergistic effect. Nootropics of the racetam family are known to be acetylcholine agonists. They stimulate the synapses, but do not produce extra acetylcholine. When the acetylcholine agonists are stacked with a choline source, the synergistic effects can be additive and very powerful.

    Thus, Coluracetam, Phenylpiracetam and Pramiracetam play an important role in the regulation of acetylcholine levels. As one nootropic increases the number of synapses, another nootropic boosts the production of the neurotransmitter. Such combination of nootropics is beneficial for the synaptic plasticity. Similarly, acetylcholinesterase (AChe) inhibitors or anti-cholinesterase, like Huperzine A may also bring positive improvements by inhibiting the cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine.

    buy nootropics online



    A step-by-step guide to using nootropics:

    Alzheimer’s patients can benefit from using nootropics. The recommended dosages of different nootropics and their combinations (i.e., nootropic stacks) are presented below.

    In order to prevent choline deficiency you should take one of the choline supplements. Here are the best choline sources:

    Alpha GPC – the recommended daily dosage is between 300 – 600 mg taken twice per day. You should take Alpha GPC with breakfast in the morning and then early in the afternoon preferably with a meal. View prices here

    Centrophenoxine (CPX) – the recommended daily dosage is between 250 – 1000 mg taken in two equal administrations throughout the day. Take Centrophenoxine once in the morning and once in the early afternoon. View Prices here

    Choline Bitartrate – the recommended daily dosage is between 500 – 1000 mg. You can take Choline Bitartrate in one dosage or split it in two equal administrations (e.g., one in the morning and one in the afternoon). View Prices here

    The choline supplement should be taken with one of the racetams that are acetylcholine agonists. The best racetams for Alzheimer’s are:

    Phenylpiracetam – the recommended daily dosage is between 200 – 600 mg taken in 2 equal dosages throughout the day. Phenylpiracetam should be taken with a meal. View Prices Here

    Coluracetam – the recommended daily dosage is between 120 – 200 mg taken in 3 equal administrations throughout the day. Coluracetam should be taken with a meal. View Prices Here

    Pramiracetam – the recommended daily dosage is between 800 – 1200 mg taken in 3 equal dosages throughout the day. Pramiracetam should be taken with a meal. View Prices Here

    A good alternative to the above racetams is Huperzine A, which is an acetylcholinesterase (AChe) inhibitor. The recommended daily dosage of Huperzine A is between 50 – 200 mcg taken in 2 equal dosages throughout the day. Huperzine A should not be used on a continuous basis for longer than 2 weeks.

    View Prices Here

    Finally, you should add Omega-3 to your nootropics stack. You should take between 1000-3000 mg of Omega-3 per day to repair membranes. View Prices Here


    Needless to say that more controlled studies are needed to investigate the effects of nootropics in the treatment and prevention of AD, but the potential of nootropics is very promising. The above listed nootropics and nootropic stacks can have some great therapeutic implications in patients with AD.


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      Why buy nootropicsWhy should I buy nootropics?

      I cannot think of any profession, industry and activity that are not performance and goal driven. We constantly strive to achieve our short-, medium- or long-term goals. This requires the highest possible mental capacity, focus and concentration.

      Many people from different backgrounds have discovered that nootropics are a fantastic way to enhance various aspects of their cognition, which enables them to achieve their goals. This is clearly demonstrated by all the recent success stories about Silicon Valley workers who are running on nootropic supplements to fuel their performance. Those workers have figured a while back that in order to optimize their brain activity they will need to supplement their diets (which when one works 12 hours or more a day may be far from perfect) with nootropics.

      Nootropic supplements in combination with the latest developments in neuroscience may help us to access the untapped brain power. Due to their effectiveness, nootropics have become one of the best-selling supplements on the market. The purpose of this short article is to explain the benefits of nootropics and why it may a very good idea to invest in them. But before that, there are a few things you should bear in mind when purchasing nootropics online, especially if you are a beginner user. By doing so, you will prevent any unnecessary disappointments.

      Buying quality nootropics online:

      High achievers are constantly seeking ways to maximize their mental capacity so that they can get ahead of their competitors. They have discovered that nootropics are a very safe and effective method of achieving it. Nootropics market is ever expanding which makes it very easy to buy nootropics online.

      However, the best thing you can do as a customer before purchasing nootropics and, for that matter, anything online is to check the reviews and feedback of that particularly online seller. Companies with excellent reviews would not risk their reputation by selling low quality nootropic supplements. Plus, they would not get excellent reviews if their products were not good.

      In case you do not trust others (there is nothing wrong with that at all) and want to be 100% sure that the purity and quality of supplements is the highest, you can request the certificate of analysis (COA) to be provided before placing your order.

      A costly alternative to this is to test the substance that you bought in a professional third party laboratory that would do quality check tests and issue a certificate for you showing its purity and quality. However, as you can imagine that would cost a lot of money and time.

      So what are the primary reasons that nootropics have become really popular?


      buy nootropics online

      View Nootropics Prices In UK  View Nootropics Prices In USA  View Nootropics Prices In EU

      Buying nootropics for concentration:

      A great variety of cognitive benefits are reported following the use of nootropics. Increases in concentration, focus and alertness are probably the main effects that are expected from most users. Thus, if you want the best nootropic for a concentration boost and find that regular stimulants, such as coffee and tea do not the job anymore, you may want to consider using following nootropics.

      If you are a big fan of coffee and struggling to find a good alternative, try to take L-theanine, a natural nootropic and a non-essentail amino acid found in tea leaves, alongside your daily caffeine intake as they work synergistically. This would give you a very powerful nootropic combination to enhance focus and concentration.

      However, some people do not like the effects of caffeine and/or find it to be too weak a stimulant for their needs. In that case, they need nootropics to give them the desired effects. Some of the most popular nootropics for concentration are: Adrafinil, Phenylpiracetam, Aniracetam and Noopept. Before you start using any of these nootropics make sure you read about the recommended dosages (search this website for more information on this).


      Adrafinil 300mg x 60 caps bottle
      • Increased wakefulness and alertness
      • Reduced fatigue and tiredness
      • Enhanced mental energy and productivity

      Read Reviews

      View Adrafinil prices



      Aniracetam 500mg x 120 caps bottle
      • Hightened memory and clear thinking
      • Reduced stress and anxiety
      • Enhance focus, mood and perception

      Read reviews

      View Aniracetam prices



      Noopept 30 mg x 120 tabs bottle
      • Heightened memory and clear thinking
      • Reduced stress, anxiety and depression
      • Enhanced focus, mood and perception

      Read reviews

      View Noopept Prices



      Phenylpiracetam 100mg x 60 tabs bottle
      • Heightened memory and clear thinking
      • Reduced stress, anxiety and depression
      • Enhanced focus, mood and perception

      Read Reviews

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      Buying nootropics for memory:

      Our experiences are simply based on our memories, meaning that we simply cannot live without them. Then, there is an extra workload at work or an important exam at college that require the optimal memory capacity. Nootropics can be a great way to improve many aspects of memory.

      The best combination or a “stack” of nootropics for beginners is to combine Piracetam and a source of choline (e.g., Alpha GPC and CDP Choline). Oxiracetam, Pramiracetam and Aniracetam are other powerful memory enhancers from the racetam family.

      Alpha GPC 400mg x 120 caps bottle

      Alpha GPC
      • Improves effectiveness of nootropics
      • Source of choline for Neurotransmitters
      • Reduces side effects of nootropics

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      Pramiracetam 400mg x 60 caps bottle

      • Heightened memory and clear thinking
      • Reduced stress, anxiety and depression
      • Enhanced memory, focus and perception

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      View Pramiracetam Prices



      Aniracetam 500mg x 120 caps bottle
      • Hightened memory and clear thinking
      • Reduced stress and anxiety
      • Enhance focus, mood and perception

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      View Aniracetam prices



      Buying nootropics for productivity:

      Productivity is defined as “a measure of the efficiency of a person”. It is a multidimensional quality that requires optimisation of all brain functions, including memory, concentration, motivation and mood. The latest biggest developments in nootropics science have been with this specific objective in mind.

      “For example, iQuzil has been created to double productivity of expert nootropics users.”

      iQuzil is a learning accelerator that contains many very effective nootropics. By carefully selecting optimal dosages and testing how these nootropic supplements work together, scientists were able to design a formula nootropic that enhances productivity.


      Try the free sample

      • Better overall cognitive performance.
      • Increased alertness, energy and focus
      • Formidable formula for stress and anxiety relief
      • Increased cognitive speed and energy

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